1 Essay Outline
List the major categories of tests
and give one specific example of a test within each category.
Instructions: 500-750+ words. MLA style. Double spaced. Please use attached outline for information to be included in the essay.
ITEMS LISTED IN THIS OUTLINE ARE WORD FOR WORD QUOTES FROM THE
TEXT. PLEASE DO NOT USE THEM AS
Text: Hogan, T.P. Psychological
Testing: A Practicle Introduction, 3rd
ed., Wiley Publishing Company, 2015
begin our exploration of the world of testing by identifying the major categories
such classification is necessarily fuzzy around the edges.
often blend into one another rather than being sharply different.
an organizational schema helps us to comprehend the breadth of the field.
are five major categories of tests, each with sub-divisions within the
five major categories of tests are: Mental Health Ability Tests, Achievement Tests, Personality Tests, Interests
and Attitudes Tests, and Neuropsychological
Health Ability Tests:
first major division encompasses mental
Psychological testing, the term mental ability includes a wide variety of
cognitive functions, such as memory, spatial visualization, and creative
the area has centered around intelligence tests.
category of tests sub-divides into individually administered intelligence
intelligence tests, and a variety of
other ability tests—other than intelligence tests.
example of an individually administered intelligence test is the Wechsler Adult
example is the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
tests are administered to individual examinees, one-on-one, by trained
psychologists to provide an index of the overall mental ability of individuals.
example of a group administered intelligence test is the Otis-Lennon School
test is administered to groups of students usually in classroom settings, to
gauge mental ability to succeed in typical school subjects.
example of tests in this category is the SAT used to predict college success.
next major category of tests are achievement
tests attempt to assess a person’s level of knowledge or skill in a particular
Tests are the most widely used of all types of tests.
in children’s classrooms use achievement tests every day. Weekly spelling tests, math tests, pop
quizzes, and final exams are all examples of everyday achievement tests.
first sub-division in this category
are achievement batteries.
developed tests such as the Stanford Achievement Test, Metropolitan Achievement
Test, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills are examples of achievement batteries.
of these batteries consist of a series of tests in such areas as reading,
mathematics, language, science, and social studies.
second sub-division of achievement
tests includes single-subject tests
that cover only one area, such as psychology, French, or geometry. An example of this is the Graduate Record of
Examinations—GRE: Psychology Test.
third sub-division are achievement
tests used for the purpose of certification
are certification and licensing achievement tests across nursing, teaching, physical
therapy, airline piloting, and so on.
of these tests in this category is a household name. But they have important consequences for
people in specific vocational fields.
fourth sub-division are government-sponsored programs.
government agencies sponsor certain achievement testing programs in such basic
subjects as reading, writing, and mathematics.
In fact, such state assessment programs have assumed enormous importance
in recent years as a result of new federal laws. In some states, high school graduation
depends partly on performance on these tests.
government-sponsored programs provide information about nationwide performance
in a variety of areas. The best known of
these efforts are the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and
the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), both of
which are the subject of frequent reports in the media.
final sub-division of achievement
tests are individually administered
achievement tests. The first four
types of achievement tests are typically group administered. However, some achievement tests are
individually administered in much the same way as individually administered
mental ability tests. The individually
administered achievement tests aid in the diagnosis of such conditions as
· The next major category includes
the variety of tests designed to yield information about the human personality.
first sub-division includes what we
call objective personality tests. In testing parlance, objective simply means
the tests are objectively scored, based on items answered in a true-false or
of these objective personality tests are the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Eating Disorder
MMPI provides a profile showing how similar the examinee’s responses are to the
responses of several clinical groups.
The BDI and EDI, as suggested by their titles, try to measure depression
and eating disorders, respectively.
second sub-division of personality
tests includes projective techniques.
all these techniques, the examinee encounters a relatively simple but
hope the examinee’s responses will reveal something about his or her
most famous of these techniques is the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Other examples are human figure drawing,
sentence completion techniques, and reactions to pictures.
third sub-division is labeled “other approaches” to cover the myriad
of other ways psychologists have devised to satisfy our limitless fascination
with the human personality.
next category of tests encompasses
measures of interests and attitudes.
most prominent sub-division in this
category includes vocational interest
measures. These tests are widely
used in high schools and colleges to help individuals explore jobs relevant to
of such tests are the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) and the Kuder Career
second sub-division is attitude scales.
category also includes numerous measures of attitudes toward topics, groups,
and practices. For example, there are
measures for attitudes toward capital punishment, attitude toward the elderly,
and so on.
final category includes neuropsychological tests. These are tests designed to yield information
about the functioning of the central nervous system, especially the brain
some perspectives, this should not be a separate category because many of the
tests used for neuropsychological testing employs ability tests and often uses
personality tests, too.
we use a separate category to capture testes used specifically to assess brain
functions. Of special interest are tests
of memory for verbal and figural material, psychomotor conditions, and abstract