Describe the main physical
features of Rorschach’s inkblots.
500-750+ words. Okay to go over on word count. MLA style.
Please cite any additional sources
IS A WORD FOR WORD QUOTE FROM THE PASSAGE OF TEXT CONCERNING THE PROMPT
Textbook: Hogan, T.P. Psychological
Testing: A Practical Introduction, 3rd
ed., Wiley Publishing Company, 2015
Text reads as follows…
The Rorschach Inkblot
The Rorschach Inkblot Test, also known as the Rorschach
Inkblot Method or Rorschach Inkblot Technique, is easily the most widely used
projective technique. Quite apart from
its specific characteristics, it illustrates many of the problems faced by any
projective technique. For both reasons,
we will spend more time on the Rorschach
than on other projective techniques covered in this chapter.
A variety of techniques employ inkblots as stimulus
materials. Clearly the most famous and
most widely used are the ones identified with Hermann Rorschach, a Swiss
psychiatrist who experimented with a set of inkblots in the early 1900s. Rorschach died at the age of 38, just shortly
after his first and only major publication about his work with the
inkblots. Rorschach’s insightful work
was clearly in a preliminary stage when he died. His set of inkblots served as the basis for
most of the subsequent work with the inkblot technique. Hence, our presentation
concentrates on these Rorschach inkblots.
Recent surveys of test usage regularly rank the Rorschach
among the most frequently used tests.
Craig and Horowitz (1990) asked directors of clinical practicum sites to
identify tests for which graduate students in clinical psychology should
receive training. The Rorschach ranked
first in response to this question.
The Rorschach inkblots consist of 10 bilaterally symmetrical
blots. (Actually, a few of the cards
have very slight asymmetries.) Figure
14.2 shows a blot similar to the first several Rorschach blots. Each blot appears on a rigid piece of
cardboard, approximately 6x9 inches: about the size of the cover on this book,
although not quite as thick. The cards
are numbered I, II … X on the back, in the upper right corner. The numbering gives the standard order for
presentation of the cards. The placement
of the card number allows the cards to be presented to the examinee in a
standard orientation. A smallish
reproduction of Hermann Rorschach’s signature also adorns the back of each card
in some printings. The Roman numerals on
the cards are especially important because the literature on the Rorschach is
replete with references to typical or atypical responses to certain cars
identified by these numerals. For
example, an author may say “the client’s response of ‘two birds in flight’ to
Card III is very unusual.” The
psychologist experienced with the Rorschach can relate to such a statement.
Most situations of Rorschach inkblots show a solid black
blot on a white back-ground, probably because this is very easy to
reproduce. Actually, none of the blots
are solid black; some have no black in them at all. Five cards (I, IV, V, VI, and VII) are
entirely achromatic, containing various shades and some solid black
portions. Two cards (II and III) are
mostly black and grey but have some blotches of red. The last three cards are entirely chromatic. Two cards (VIII and IX) are muted pastel
combinations of pink, green, and orange.
The last card (X) is a profusion of pink, blue, yellow, and green.
Herman Rorschach’s 1921 book, Psychodiagnostik, did not give a standard set of directions for
either administering or scoring the 10 inkblots. Following Rorschach’s untimely death in 1922,
over a period of several decades, a number of American psychologists developed systems, that is, directions for
administering and scoring, for Rorschach’s inkblots. There were five such systems, each identified
in the literature with the name of the system’s principle architect. The systems included those of Beck (1937),
Klopfer (1937; Klopfer & Kelley, 1942), Hertz (1943), 1948), Rapaport
(Rapaport, Gill & Schafer, 1946), and Piotrowski (1937, 1957). Notice that the earliest references for all
these systems sprouted in the relatively restricted time period of 1937-1946. There was also the Holtzman Inkblot Technique
(Holtzman, 1961). Notice that the name “Rorschach”
does not appear in the title. This was
quite deliberate on Holtzman’s part. He
wanted to use inkblots but in a quite different way from any of the Rorschach
systems. For example, he allowed only
one response to each inkblot.
Nevertheless, the Holtzman technique is often lumped together with the
Rorschach systems. Aiken (1999) provides
brief but interesting historical sketches for the origins of these
systems. Each of these systems gained some
overlapping yet partially conflicting systems led to confusion. Recall our treatment of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
in Chapter 8. Imagine that there were
several different sets of directions for administering this test, different
ways of scoring responses, and different score profiles for it. The result would be chaos. That is the situation that prevailed for many
years with the Rorschach.
Another American psychologist, John Exner, Jr. (Exner,
2003), produced what is called the Comprehensive
System for administering and scoring the Rorschach inkblots. Exner attempted to incorporate the best, most
defensible, and apparently most fruitful features of all five systems into his Comprehensive
System. This system has become the
industry standard in recent years.
Hiller et al. (1999) referred to the “almost universal adoption of the Exner
Comprehensive System for the Rorschach”